Animals threatened with extinction
Are the types of animals and plants that face extinction . Scientists estimate that more than 8,300 plant species and 7,200 animal species on the planet are threatened with extinction and there is a majority of these species in the tropics and developing countries . There are thousands more die each year before scientists discovered that life . Extinction (Extinction) is a natural process during a march Alttorkadd evolved species disappeared slowly through geologic time as a result of climate changes and their inability to adapt to the relations of competition and predation . But since the beginning of the seventeenth century the rate of extinction has increased significantly due to the increase in the number of the world's population and human consumption of natural resources. Currently most of the citizens are changing more quickly than you can cope with most of the species through a process of evolution or natural selection . The current global extinction rate is greater than the natural extinction rate is worrying . Many biologists believe that we are in the midst of the largest mass extinction (Mass extinction) since the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago .
The size of the problem
Scientists estimate that the world loses between fifty thousand and a hundred thousand species of creatures every year has been a life scientists said that the rate of extinction of species is nearly twice what they were to go by the estimates of experts just four years . As pointed out by one environmental reports that the rate of decline in the species that did not happen in the land since the sixty-five million years ago , while the extinct dinosaurs and at this pace , we may be approaching extinction mass similar to what happened before and if you did not stop the deterioration of the current happening in the environment, the world will lose forever about fifty-five percent of the objects during a period ranging between fifty and a hundred years from now, I have already got in the past, the pace of similar losses in biodiversity , and resulted from such disasters disastrous effects reflected on the species that escaped from extinction. Over the next thirty years , scientists predict the extinction of nearly a quarter of known mammals and ten varieties of birds recorded as a result of climate change and the steady loss in their natural habitat . Also expect that a large number of insects, spiders and worms also oversees the extinction . When extinct varieties of objects , it leaves a gap in the eco-system , and possibly affect our environment and our consciousness . But that's not all , every object extinct , takes with him a wealth of information . When the last person to die in the class of objects , we lose all information about the adjustment processes that have accumulated over millions of years . It would be negligent of us adults that we allow the loss of this information
Facts and Figures
5.3 billion is the number of years of evolution to get to the current biodiversity
13-14 million is the total number of species which are estimated to exist
12-13 % is the percentage of the species studied
816 is the number of races that record extinction during the last five centuries of human activities Bmfol
1 of 4 is the ratio of mammal species that face extinction in the near future
1 of 7 is the ratio of plant species that are in danger of extinction in the near future
1 of 8 is the ratio of bird species face extinction in the near future
More than 200 billion U.S. dollars is the estimated value of international trade annually in the field of wildlife .
There are many reasons that lead to the extinction of species threatened with extinction or make them , but the main reason is habitat destruction (Habitat Destruction) due to human activities . During the evolution of the species most adapted to live in the home or environment to meet the specific needs necessary for survival . Without this habitat of these species will not be able to live or stay . When the destruction of these habitats can not then these species continue to live in the same environment . There is a reason no less important than habitat destruction , a fragmentation of these habitats to small areas and isolated from each other , which leads to a disconnect between the plant and animal species remaining on these parts , which reduces the genetic diversity (Genetic diversity) and makes them less able to adapt to the environment and with changes climate and are thus vulnerable to extinction dramatically . There are many reasons that eliminate or fragmented habitats , including: pollution
Drying the wet land
Conversion of forest land to the pastoralist areas
Destruction of coral reefs
Construction of roads and dams
Build cities and residential areas
Trade kinds of wildlife
It is estimated that the annual return for the trade of wildlife species up to billions of dollars , and that this trade include hundreds of millions of species of plants and animals . And characterized this trade diversity and it stretches from animals and plants to various kinds of side products derived from them , including food products, leather and wooden musical instruments , antiques and tourist medicines . This trade has begun to emerge since the beginning of the seventeenth century and led to the extinction of many species are threatened with extinction or make them . For example, industries based on the whales, which they are hunting whales for their meat and oil is led to make many kinds of whales on the brink of extinction . The African black rhinoceros also seriously endangered due to hunting for horns, which is used as a medicine and tonic .
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The introduction of new species into the environment
The introduction of a species to new environmental system (Invasion by nonnative Species) cause many types of damage inherent in this ecosystem . May enter a kind of foreign intruder or to an ecosystem that accidentally or intentionally and can compete with fungal species already in the ecosystem or associated with predation relations . It may not have the plants and animals fungal no way to defend against invaders , and who may spend on these types or detract number dramatically . These destructive effects are often irreversible and often there is no way to prevent the damage from spreading.
Environmental Pollution Pollution is another factor important cause of extinction . Toxic chemicals , especially chlorine compounds and materials of fertilizers and pesticides , such as ( the DDT) has become concentrated in food chains . The effect of these materials is greatest in the species near the top of the food pyramid . Water pollution and rising water temperature is an important factor also has spent many types of fish in many of the citizen. Water pollution oil also destroys the birds , fish and mammals . The oil can cover the bottom of the ocean for many years . It is also known that acid rain resulting from excessive toxicity to the air caused the death of neighborhoods in freshwater lakes and the destruction of vast tracts of forest land .
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Efforts to keep the species from extinction ?
Established in the UK for the tissue bank to store genetic material for thousands of endangered animals . The Bank will , which will be called " Noah's Ark frozen" , maintaining the " Blades of life" for these animals until after their extinction . This will enable future generations of scientists to understand the creatures that have become extinct a long time ago , and also help in future programs to keep animals that are threatened with extinction . This project enjoys the support of both the Natural History Museum and the Zoological Society of London and the University of Nottingham . Stages of the project Noah's Ark frozen : • takes scientists insects complete or small samples of animal tissue so as not life-threatening can be frozen tissue for safekeeping • DNA extraction from tissue samples , both after taking the sample directly or after freezing • can use the DNA for research purposes , which may lead one day, to clone objects extinct • send some DNA samples to other laboratories as a deposit against damage or loss • can be frozen DNA is used for the period may extend for thousands of years and the project aims " Noah's Ark frozen" to store a copy " backup " of the genetic code for many of the objects before extinction . The genetic codes will be stored in this database frozen , can be referenced in the future for the purpose of knowledge. In practice , this will require Daba pursuant to extract tissue samples from objects that are threatened with extinction . With the large-sized animals , it includes taking small pieces of animal skin while undergoing anesthesia . As with small organisms such as insects , it requires it to keep the entire organism . And then will be transferred to the plant tissue samples frozen Noah's Ark ( which will be distributed to a number of them in different parts of the globe ) and stored at extremely low temperatures . If all goes as planned , the samples RNA DNA)) , which contains the genetic code may remain intact for tens of thousands of years or more . Scientists say one of the supervisors of the project, " It is well known that the ( DNA er ) lasts a hundred thousand a year when the subject of conservation in nature. But under ideal storage conditions may be able to preserve the samples for a period longer than that . " The horse will be the Yellow Sea and Addax convex centuries and snails Bartola first objects in danger of extinction intervention frozen Noah's Ark project , at a cost of £ 200 for a single class . The project hopes to be able to store samples of thousands of varieties of other objects , ranging from mammals , birds, reptiles and even insects . Priority will be given to the objects that are threatened with extinction within the next five years . Organizers of the project was also keen to point out that it will not be limited to pets and domesticated . The main goal at this time for " Bank of genetic information " that is sure to keep a record of the genetic codes of the extinct creatures . And will be used in the interest of future generations . Said one of the organizers of the project , " This project is an essential tool has been able to study RNA sequences (DNA) of the extinct animals in the future . " "If the project was frozen Noah's Ark is located at the beginning of the twentieth century we were able to study animals such as the Tasmanian tiger and provide us with valuable information about the genetic relationships and evolution. " No one knows where the ship will dock Noah frozen in the end , but while locked Berhevha precious swirl future , the possibilities seem exciting .
And geographic regions are believed her government protection and support . Began to appear with the early twentieth century and are of great importance in the preservation of species and biodiversity. It was Yellowstone National Park in the United States of America 's first national park in the world. Today, there are around the world , rural areas set aside for wildlife Kmahmyat . Plants and animals in these areas are protected as much as possible from humans snipers and collectors , are also prohibited from investors and construction companies in which the construction of buildings . Some of these vast reserves includes thousands of square kilometers , and others to exceed small parcels of land not Ttalha hands after urban development .
CITES (CITES) is an abbreviation for the name of prolonged : the Convention on International Trade in animals and plants threatened with extinction (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) which is about an international agreement between governments , and aims to put the safeguards necessary to prevent the threat of international trade in these types of life and survival. At the time that crystallized the first ideas of the Convention in the sixties , it was the international debate about the regulation of trade in wildlife species in order to maintain a relatively new phenomenon , however hindsight it was the need for the Convention intuitive . It is estimated that the annual return for the trade of wildlife species up to billions of dollars , and that this trade include hundreds of millions of species of plants and animals . And characterized this trade diversity and it stretches from animals and plants to various kinds of side products derived from them , including food products, leather and musical instruments and wooden artifacts and tourist medicines .. Given the high rates of trade in certain animal and plant species and exploitation , as well as other factors, including the loss of and other natural habitat , it is possible that all of these reasons lead to a decline in large numbers and even the threat of extinction of some of them . Although most of the species that is where the trade is not endangered, but the existence of an agreement to ensure the continuation of this trade is vital in order to protect these natural resources in the future . As the trade in plants and animals are across the border between countries in nature , the special efforts organized requires international cooperation in order to ensure that the exposure of certain types where over-exploitation .. and it came the Convention on the ((CITES expressing this spirit of cooperation , they are today offering varying degrees the protection of more than 30 thousand species of plants and animals ( about 5,000 animal species and 25,000 species of plants ) whether trafficking as a species live or were fled or herbs dried . technically it has formulated a draft of CITES, as a result of the adoption of a resolution in in 1963 to members of the International Union for the Protection of the Environment IUCN, then agree on the text of the agreement at the end of it inside the meeting included representatives of 80 countries, was held in March 3, 1973 in Washington DC , and the Convention entered into force with effect from the first in July 1975 . and CITES is an international agreement adopted by states voluntarily , and although the agreement is legally binding for States Parties ( signatory states ) , in other words, commits the countries concerned to apply , but it does not replace the local national laws relating to these topics. Instead, the Convention provides a framework that must be respected by all parties that they must adopt local legislation and providing the necessary guarantees to ensure the application of the CITES Convention at the national level or national level. Since he entered the CITES Convention to take effect for years , did not happen that displays the type of species to extinction because of trade , and considering the offer agreement to protect those species , and enjoys agreement on membership of 162 countries , making it the largest international convention ever to protect life fungal . The working principle of CITES, the modus operandi of CITES are in accordance with international trade subject to a certain degree of control in certain types of vital selection . These require rationing to control all operations of import and export and re- export to the sheer diversity of those species covered by the provisions of CITES, through a licensing system . It is worth mentioning that there are internationally known global organizations working to ensure the work of CITES at the level of the world and Interpol , the World Customs Organization , the United Nations Environment Programme, and other non- governmental organizations. CITES is also working directly with a certain number of conventions , including the Convention on Biological Diversity CBD, the Basel Convention BASEL, Ramsar Ramsar, CMS CMS, the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling . The affects of this joint cooperation aspects of work such as training to work in the common customs , and to reconcile the legislation . The species covered by CITES, was prepared by the lists were included in three of the Annexes to the Convention , according to the degree of protection required by any kind : • Annex I: includes endangered species , are not allowed to exercise the trade in these species , except in exceptional circumstances .. It includes about 600 the type of animal , and nearly 300 plant species . • Appendix II includes species not necessarily threatened with extinction , but it must impose restrictions on trade in order to avoid inappropriate use of survival .. and has more than 1,400 animal species and more than 22,000 species of plants . • Appendix III includes species are protected in a particular country , but it requires the assistance of other States Parties to CITES in controlling the trade in this species .. and includes about 270 species animal and 7 types of plants. , Where some countries may ask to have this product threatened then extinction , but it exists in other countries .
According to the Statistical Office of the United Nations , there are 26 species endangered in Syria, 17 from the animal kingdom and 9 of the plant kingdom . Syria has taken several measures to preserve endangered animals was the most recent actions taken to protect the bird " bald ibis ," which was discovered in Palmyra desert area of extinction . This bird was discovered by Syrian citizens by accident while on a survey and monitor the birds Palmyra area and biodiversity within the project of reviving pastures. Number of bald ibis birds in the world , ranging from 200-300 birds present in Morocco , Turkey, Syria , Yemen and Senegal . Found five of them in Syria and believes that these birds are the only five remaining in the world still kept the historic migration path line where you start to come to destroy Syria in February to July each year . And has been issued in Syria, many of the laws and regulations that concerned with the preservation of the environment and biodiversity and protect the species from extinction was the most important: the content of the legislation general type of legislation regulating fishing aquaculture 1964 legislative decree (30) regulates land use, forest 1966 Law No. 7 regulate hunting of wild animals The birds Allammloch 1970 legislative decree No. 156 regulating the import and export of livestock 1979 Law No. 247 to prevent hunting for five years in 1994 resolution No. 40 regulates the exploitation of forestry 1994 Law No. 87 regulates the use rights Balahtab timber 1994 resolution 38 / v extension to prevent hunting for five years in 1999 resolution ? ? ? ?
Nineties period saw the publication of numerous decisions that are many sites as nature reserves or wild aquatic ( marine and freshwater ) , where such decisions deprive all human activities subversive of sites and activities were limited to scientific purposes only . The most important of these reserves :
Protected fir and cedar : State: Latakia Area: 1350 hectares with a proposal to expand to 20,000 hectares of the project , which was launched during the implementation .
Mount protected Abdul Aziz : State: Al-Hasakah . Area: 4220 hectares .
Forest Reserve Alverlq : State: Latakia . Area declared : 1500 hectares .
Ras simple Governorate: Lattakia . Area: 3,000 hectares .
Or protected birds ( protected beach freely) . Province: Latakia . Area: 1000 hectares
In spite of national efforts to protect biodiversity , but that the establishment of nature reserves in the modern sense , comprehensive and that is by participation of local people in the implementation of protection is still in its infancy .
Some types of endangered animals
There are more than 800 species of animals threatened with extinction and extinction and there are associations sequence is maintained and need material and moral support for the success of Bmqsdha .
Of these animals : -
Assam hog wild there is only now in the province of Assam , India , which is no small numbers and faces the courtyard
Animal lemurs who live it are currently 30 animals on the island of Madagascar and Nothingness him anywhere else in the world
Forest turtle , which did not remain only in 1000 only turtle living in the slopes of the Andes in Colombia after the acceleration of deforestation and the destruction of their environment in which they live
Toad found only on the island of Mallorca , it is usually the male animal carrying fertilized eggs on its back until they hatch , and the causes of diseases and the extinction assault on the environment in which they live
Little did Albrkit stupidly leaving only 200 birds in the southwestern island of Mauritius and that because of the loss of its food , which share the island mice in his food and to pay starvation
Flat -tailed bats , creatures that have caused civilization , tourism and human assault on the environment for normal living , which helped in the near extinction , it was now only left him only 100 giant pandas