A full search for the paper industry .. how the paper industry
In the civilization of the twentieth century , it has become an essential element of the paper and became the development of technology for the production responsible for the rapid increase of education and high levels of education among people across the world .
History of the paper industry
Invention of paper back to the third millennium BC (about 2700 BC. AD ) has invented the ancient Egyptians good material for writing , with easy access to this article invaluable in handy , a papyrus . That was one of the greatest inventions in the history of mankind , and before that was the writing ( which appeared in the fourth millennium ) limited to stone or mud flaps and used by the Sumerians , preferring to write on it and found closer to trading , and Acer in the cost of cut stone , the boards made up of silt pure soft , and pour into molds with canonical forms , and they come out the painting on the flat -sided disc , or in the form of a quarter circle flat surface convex back, or in the form of a rectangle . Painting may be in the form of the cone , and leave unchanged , after writing or dried in the heat of normal so gaining appropriate hardness .
The rectangular panels are more common , and were burned in ovens , and kept in the covers of mud after tossing them a little powder dry to prevent silt possess an adhesion , then this breaks cover before reading his portrait of the Interior.
The Egyptians then making paper from papyrus stalks , and resolving place books stone and clay . The papyrus cheaper price and Acer as it was growing in abundance in the swamps of the Delta . The paper pulp to make the cut longitudinal strips are placed in opposing two or three on top of each and then wetted with water and press . It was made as pages separate , and then plastered these pages one at the bottom of the other , and thus might work tapes of different lengths with long texts . The width strips of papyrus has ranged from three feet to 18 feet . The longest known papyrus is Papyrus Harris reached a length of 133 feet and display (16) feet . I have been using papyrus in writing in AD uttered the Mediterranean until the atheist century AD .
The paper is now known , its history goes back to the second century AD . In 105 AD, making Chinese Tse any color paper from the bark of trees, and fish nets . Then come the Chinese to make paper from pulp to the door of the trees disappeared, this place is expensive silk , and the heavy weight of the jungle , who disguised by the Chinese for a long time . After the Chinese developed this material workmanship using fishplates of glue or gelatin mixed with a starchy paste prevailed by fiber paper and make a quick absorption of the ink .
But Chinese paper was limited and did not spread Iva experience in the ancient world or the mediator until the eighth century AD , when the Arabs knew the secrets of the Chinese paper industry after opening Samarkand in 93 AH / 712 AD . And established the first paper mill in Baghdad in 178 AH / 794 AD . And founded al-Fadl ibn Yahya in the era of Harun al-Rashid . Then spread the paper industry by leaps and bounds in all parts of the Islamic world , entered Syria, Egypt , North Africa and Spain , and people were writing until the time of slavery and Alasp and Allkhav , then ordered Harun al-Rashid , after a lot of paper , not people write only in Alkagd .
And developed industry Alkagd Muslims and Islamic factories produced excellent types of it. Among the most famous methods of industry Alkagd in Islamic eras mentioned in the book ' Mayor of the book and several with Kernels ' and it mentions the author of Prince goats bin Badesi way industry Alkagd of material hemp and white way : ' to soak hemp and wander until softened and then soaked in water, lime and rubbed by hand and dried reiterates this process three days and replace the water every time until it becomes white and then cut Palmqrad and soaked with water until relieved lime and then it beats in a mortar , a soprano so as not to keep the contract and then analyzes in the water and it becomes like silk and pour into molds according to the size you want and be a paper cut open strings is attributable to cannabis and hits a strong and boiled in the form of large water and stir on both sides, strong and boiled in the form of large water and stir on both sides, so be Tgena then poured into a mold and stir on a board and pasted on the wall to dry and fall Wei Akhz his smooth delicate and starch in cold water and boil until boiling and pour the flour and stir until Fataly amuse him paper and then damage the paper on a reed to dry from the duplex and then sprinkle with water and dried and polished ' .
During the ten consecutive centuries , until the date of the invention of the first paper machine in the eighteenth century did not change the basic processes used in the paper industry. The raw material was placed in a large basin then Tsahn Bmedkh or sledgehammer to separate the fibers . Then this article is washed with running water to get rid of the dirt , and after separation of the fiber without reservation change the water in the basin. At this stage , the liquid material is ready for the actual papermaking process .
The main machine in the paper industry is the template. This template is placed inside a wooden frame , a movable frame low around its edge . The maker of paper and dip the mold frame in the basin that contains a liquid material , and when they go out of the basin , the mold surface is covered with a thin layer of a mixture of fiber and water. The machine is then rocked back and forth and side to side . This process helps to distribute the mixture evenly over the surface of the mold and make the individual fibers are interwoven with other fibers near them, which makes the paper strong chick . During that run a large part of the water in the mixture over the network in the mold. Then leave the machine and chick wet paper some time until the paper together enough so that they can get rid of the wooden frame around the existing template.
And after removing the wooden frame of the mold , the mold is placed in a position inverted and placed the chick paper on the so-called non-woven homespun pad , then put the pad on the other chick paper and the process is repeated .
After laying pads between the number of chicks paper , placed in a pile all piston and subjected to a pressure of up to 100 tons degree or more where they are getting rid of most of the remaining water in the paper. Then separated from the chicks paper felts and overstock and press . And repeat the process pressure pile of paper several times and each time the pile placed in a different format where the chicks single paper in different modes for the other chicks . This process is called alternately repeated and leads to improve the surface of the leaves that have been completed manufactured . The last stage in the paper industry is the drying stage , where the paper attached in groups of four or five chicks on the ropes in a special drying room until the moisture evaporates completely in it .
For the paper , which uses the ink for the purposes of writing or in print , it requires additional treatment after drying , because without this treatment , will be absorbed by the paper and ink lines appear distorted. Include the treatment process to cover the paper with a layer of glue through Gmesh in a solution of animal glue and then drying the paper they are subjected to this process , and the completion of the paper by pressing the chicks between the metal sheets of paper or cardboard smooth . And determines the strength of the pressure feel of the paper. And pressing the leaves with coarse texture lightly to a relatively short period , while pressing the leaves with a soft texture severe pressure for a relatively longer period .
We have many types of paper in parts of the Islamic state , there was a Ettalhi , and Alnouha , and al-Jaafari , and the Pharaonic , and Tahiri , relative to the names of corrupt officials . This led to facilitate the production of books in a big way . In less than a century , Muslims produced hundreds of thousands of copies of the books , which was decorated with hundreds of public and private libraries all over the world from China in the east to the west of Andalusia .
Enter the Muslims of Andalusia and paper to Europe , and the Europeans at the time they write the Terrapins from the skins of animals , but the monks are accustomed to Knit literature greats Greece Blog slavery to write instead of religious sermons , which led to the loss of much of the heritage of Greece, scientific and cultural .
Then spread craft paper industry in Europe , Vonci the first paper mill in Spain around the year 544 AH / 1150 AD , then deteriorated this industry in Spain , and moved to Italy , and established the first factory for this purpose in the city Verriano year 674 AH / 1276 AD , and set up another factory in Padua in 833 AH / 1340 AD , then the other factories in many Trever , Florence, Bologna , Parma , Milan and Venice . The first paper mill was established in Germany was in the city of Mainz in 719 AH / 1320 AD , followed by another factory in Nuremberg in 792 AH / 1390 AD , while England have delayed the paper industry where for the rest of the European countries for nearly a hundred years was the construction of the first plant where the paper in 1495 AD . During the fifteenth century solution to replace paper skin parchments in writing in Europe . While the paper industry to have entered the United States in the late seventeenth century where he established the first factory in America in 1690 .
And has resulted in increased use of paper in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to a shortage in the bark of the wood raw material , which was sufficient only known European paper makers . At the same time , attempts were made to reduce the cost of paper through the invention of the machine replace the hand- molding process used in the paper industry. Has manufactured the first machine in the process of its 1203 / 1789 was invented by French inventor Nicolas Louis Robert . The development of this machine brothers Robert and Henry Fordgnier Ossell Fordgnier year 1217 AH / 1803 AD . It also solved the problem of the paper industry from cheap raw materials through the manufacturing process to reach a pulp around the year 1840 , has also been reached chemically pulp production processes then about ten years .
And currently makes more than 95% of paper from wood cellulose . Wood pulp is used only in the manufacture of cheap types of paper , such as that used in newsprint , but the species is used where the finest chemically treated wood pulp and a mixture of pulp and bark fibers . . The best types of paper - such as those used in writing - those made of bark fiber only .
When the paper industry automatically cleans the bark user using the machine in order to get rid of dust or ash and exotic materials . After the cleaning process , the bark is placed in the kettle where a large circular boil bark and lime under pressure steam for up to several hours . And lime combine with fat and other exotic materials in the soap bark to be insoluble , and can get rid of this soap later , as this reduces any lime colored pigment present in the vehicle color . Then turns to bark machine called a Hollander, a basin is divided longitudinally so that they form a continuum around the tub . In one half of the basin , there is a horizontal cylinder carrying a series of knives that spin rapidly near the base plate , a curved knives other provider . And passing the mixture consisting of bark and water between the cylinder and the baseboard and turns to bark fibers . In the other half of the basin , there is a hollow cylinder wash -coated thin is a network organization in a certain way so that sucks water from the basin , leaving behind her bark and fiber . During the flow of a mixture of water and bark about Alholander , is to get rid of dirt and soaked bark gradually until completely disintegrates into individual fibers . After that is inserted in the machine wet bark Hollander subset in order to separate the fibers again. At this point , add the coloring materials and glue Kasamg or type of resin and filler material , such as sulphate of lime or pure clay , so as to increase the weight and size of the paper